An Excerpt from Jim Conrad's
Naturalist Newsletter of July 3, 2005
issued from California's Sierra Nevada Foothills

CANYON BIRDS

It's striking how the boulder zone's bird population is so different from that of the wooded slope right above it. It's almost as if about 30 feet above the water's surface on both slopes a glass ceiling keeps out most slope birds, and keeps in a whole community of other species you don't see away from the canyon's bottom. Here are some canyon birds: